Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. Immunohistochemical staining is widely used in the diagnosis of abnormal cells such as those found in cancerous tumors. Specific molecular markers are characteristic of particular cellular events such as proliferation or cell death (apoptosis). IHC is also widely used in basic research to understand the distribution and localization of biomarkers and differentially expressed proteins in different parts of a biological tissue.
Typically, a tissue section is mounted on a slide and incubated with antibodies (polyclonal or monoclonal) specific to the antigen (primary reaction). The antigen-antibody signal is then amplified using a second antibody conjugated to a complex of peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP), avidin-biotin-peroxidase (ABC), or avidin-biotin alkaline phosphatase. In the presence of substrate and chromogen, the enzyme forms a colored deposit at the sites of antibody-antigen binding.
Frequently Ordered IHC Tests:
View our full list of IHC Panels, Antibodies, and Stains.
In situ hybridization
In situ hybridization (ISH) targets specific nucleic acids within fixed tissues and cells to indicate a gene’s presence or expression while allowing simultaneous visualization of the tissue’s morphology. NeoGenomics offers chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) for analysis of CVM, EBER, kappa, and lambda.