Immunohistochemistry Tests



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Methodology Test Name Test Description Print View
IHC Acute Leukemia IHC Panel Staining with the following antibodies to identify acute leukemia in bone marrow clots and core biopsies: CD3, CD7, CD20, CD34, CD45 LCA, CD56, CD117, MPO, PAX-5, and TdT. View
IHC Adenocarcinoma vs. Mesothelioma IHC Panel Staining with the following seven antibodies to differentiate pulmonary adenocarcinoma from malignant mesothelioma, epithelial type: Pan-Cytokeratin Plus, CEA, MOC-31, BerEP4, TTF1, calretinin, and WT-1. View
IHC AFB (Acid-Fast Bacilli)

Special stain. Ziehl-Neelsen Acid-Fast Bacilli Stain is used to detect the presence of acid-fast mycobacteria in tissue sections. Acid-fast techniques are of value in the detection of mycobacteria, rod-shaped organisms that sometimes exhibit filamentous (fungus-like) growth. The most significant disease-producing mycobacteria are Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae.

 

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IHC AFP (Alpha-1-Fetoprotein) AFP is normally synthesized in the liver, intestinal tract, and yolk sac of the fetus. Antibody to AFP has been shown to be useful in detecting hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and germ cell neoplasms, especially yolk sac tumors. View
IHC ALK1 Recognizes a human p80 protein, identified as a hybrid of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene and the nucleophosmin (NPM) gene resulting from the t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation found in 30-50% of CD30+ large cell lymphomas (1). This rabbit monoclonal antibody can be used to detect p80 in these lymphomas and may also be used to detect a recently described subtype of large B cell lymphoma, which expresses the full-length ALK protein (2). View
IHC Amyloid A Amyloid A component reacts with native and fixed amyloid fibrils. Cross-reactivity with serum precursor of protein amyloid A has been observed. Serum amyloid A protein is a normal serum acute phase reactant. AA (secondary) amyloidosis is associated with some forms of cancer and a variety of chronic inflammatory conditions, including chronic infections, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn’s disease, and familial Mediterranean fever. The application of both Congo red and amyloid A component in tissues with amyloid deposits has been shown to be superior to Congo red alone. View
IHC Amyloid P Amyloid P component reacts with all types of amyloid deposits, however, it is also present in normal elastic tissue and basement membranes. The application of Congo red, amyloid P and amyloid A in tissues with amyloid deposits has been shown to be superior to Congo red and other histochemical stains. View
IHC Annexin A1 Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is strongly expressed on the cell membrane and occasionally in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in 97% of samples from patients with hairy cell leukemia. By contrast, B-cell lymphomas other than hairy cell leukemia, including typical splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes and variant hairy cell leukemia, are ANXA1-negative. Wang et al. showed that high ANXA1 expression is frequent in esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas, is associated with more advanced pathologic T stage and the presence of distant metastasis, and is an independent prognostic factor for patient survival (Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12[15]:4598-604). View
IHC BCA225 Anti-BCA-225 antibody recognizes a human breast carcinoma associated glycoprotein BCA-225 (220-225kD). This protein differs in size and distribution from other breast carcinoma antigens. Unlike other antibodies against breast carcinoma antigens, this antibody does not react with benign or malignant colonic, stomach, prostate, liver, pancreas, thyroid, or parotid tissues. Adenocarcinomas of the lung, ovary and endometrium also stain with this antibody. View
IHC BCL-1 (Cyclin D1) BCL-1 (also known as cyclin D1) is one of the key cell cycle regulators, and functions in association with cdk4 and /or cdk6 by phosphorylating the Rb protein. It is a putative proto-oncogene over-expressed in a wide variety of human neoplasms including mantle cell lymphomas (MCL). View
IHC BCL-2 Expression of Bcl-2alpha oncoprotein inhibits the programmed cell death (apoptosis). In most follicular lymphomas, neoplastic germinal centers express high levels of Bcl-2alpha protein, whereas the normal or hyperplastic germinal centers are negative. View
IHC BCL-6 BCL-6 proto-oncogene product (a Kruppel-type zinc-finger protein) is mainly expressed in normal germinal center B cells and related lymphomas. Bcl-6 is involved in chromosome rearrangements at 3q27 in non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and BCL-6 rearrangements have been detected in 33%-45% of diffuse large B cell lymphomas. BCL-6 has been detected immunohistochemically in follicular lymphomas, diffuse large B cell lymphomas, Burkitt’s lymphomas and in nodular, lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin’s disease. View
IHC BerEP4 Ber-EP4 recognizes two glycoproteins of 34 and 49 kDa present on the surface and the cytoplasm of all epithelial cells except the superficial layers of squamous epithelial, hepatocytes and parietal cells. It does not label mesothelial cells and rarely marks mesotheliomas. It shows a broad spectrum of reactivity with human epithelial cells including simple epithelia and basal layers of stratified non-keratinized squamous epithelium and epidermis. Ber-EP4 reportedly distinguishes adenocarcinomas from pleural mesotheliomas. View
IHC Beta-Catenin Beta-catenin is a 92 kD protein normally found in the cytoplasm of the cell in the submembranous location. This protein is associated with E-cadherin and may be essential for the function of E-cadherin. Mutations in the beta-catenin gene result in nuclear accumulation of this protein. Nuclear accumulation of this protein has been demonstrated in fibromatosis lesions of the breast, and abdomen and therefore is useful in differentiating this lesion from other spindle cell lesions that may occur in these locations. Nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin has also been demonstrated in colorectal carcinoma. View
IHC Beta-HCG Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a protein secreted in large quantities by normal trophoblasts; the antibody detects cells and tumors of trophoblastic origin such as choriocarcinoma. Large cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung demonstrate hCG positivity in 90% and 60% of cases respectively. 20% of squamous cell lung carcinomas are positive for hCG. hCG expression by non-trophoblastic tumors may indicate aggressive behavior since it has been observed that hCG may play a role in the host response to a given tumor. View
IHC BG-8 Blood group antigens have been examined as potential descriminators between pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PACA) and epithelioid mesotheloma (EM). Lewis-y is the only one of these that appears to have some merit. BG8 is raised from the SK-LU-3 lung cancer line. View
IHC Bladder vs. Prostate Carcinoma IHC Panel Staining with the following six antibodies to differentiate bladder from prostate cancer: CK 7, CK 20, PSA, PIN-4. View
IHC BOB-1 B-cell specific octamer binding protein-1 (BOB-1), also known as OBF-1 and OCA-B, is a lymphocyte specific transcriptional coactivator protein. BOB-1 has been reported to be detectable in all B cell populations found in reactive lymphoid tissues, with the strongest expression being found in germinal center B cells and plasma cells. The expression of BOB-1 in B cell tumors has been reported to be variable. View
IHC Breast IHC Panel Staining with the following four or five antibodies, according to the client’s instruction, to characterize breast tumors for therapeutic planning: ER, PgR, HER2, Ki-67, with or without p53. Reflex to HER2 FISH after HER2 IHC is available. View
IHC Burkitt vs. DLBC Lymphoma IHC panel Staining with the following antibodies to distinguish Burkitt, DLBCL, and double-hit lymphoma: BCL-2, c-MYC, Ki-67. FISH testing for MYC rearrangements may be useful in the work-up of this differential diagnosis. View
IHC CA125 CA125 determinant is present on a mucin-like glycoprotein of high molecular weight. CA125 has been found on frozen sections of amnion and derivatives of coelomic and mullerian epithelium, including pleura, pericardium and peritoneum. In adult tissues, epithelial cells of fallopian tube, endometrium and endocervix, pancreas, colon, gall bladder, stomach, kidney, apocrine sweat gland and mammary gland. View
IHC CA19-9 CA19-9, a carbohydrate antigenic determinant identified as a sialylated lacto-N-fucopentose II, is related to the Lewis blood group. The CA19-9 antibody has been shown to label adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, stomach, colon and gall bladder. CA19-9 is also expressed in primary and metastatic ovarian carcinomas. View
IHC Calcitonin Rabbit anti-human calcitonin is a purified immunoglobulin fraction of rabbit serum. Contaminating antibodies have been absorbed by solid-phase absorption. The antibody reacts with human calcitonin and labels C-cells in normal thyroid. It is particularly useful in differentiating medullary carcinoma from papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. When used in conjunction with an anti-thyroglobulin antibody, most medullary carcinomas are positive for calcitonin, and is usually negative for most papillary and follicular types of thyroid cancer. View
IHC Caldesmon Caldesmon is a regulatory protein found in smooth muscle and other tissues which interacts with actin, myosin, tropomyosin, and calmodulin. Anti-caldesmon antibody labels smooth muscle and tumors of smooth muscle, myofibroblastic, and myoepithelial differentiation. Anti-Caldesmon has also been used to differentiate epithelioid mesothelioma from serous papillary carcinoma of the ovary. View
IHC Calponin-1 Calponin, a thin filament associated protein is implicated in the regulation and modulation of smooth muscle contraction. It is capable of binding to actin, calmodulin, troponin C and tropomyosin. Calponin is expressed in smooth muscle and tissues containing significant amounts of smooth muscle. Two isoforms of calponin exist whose molecular weights are 34kDa and 29kDa. Expression of the 29kDa form is primarily restricted to muscle of the urogenital tract. The expression of calponin has also been demonstrated in myoepithelial cells from benign and malignant breast lesions. It stains smooth muscle, myoepithelial cells, myofibroblasts, keratinocytes and nerve fibers. It identifies myoepithelial cells in breast lesions, and helps differentiate breast collagenous spherulosis (positive) from adenoid cystic carcinoma. Adenoid cystic carcinoma in salivary gland tumors is calponin positive. View
IHC Calretinin Calretinin is an intracellular calcium-binding protein belonging to the troponin C superfamily characterized by a structural mitif described as the EF-hand domain. The immunohistochemical detection of calretinin in developing cerebellum is restricted to the later stages indicated by weak staining from week 21 of gestation, in Purkinje and basket cells and in neurons of the dentate nucleus. The intensity of staining increases as the cerebellum matures. In tumors, calretinin has been detected in mesotheliomas and some pulmonary adenocarcinomas. View
IHC CAM 5.2 CAM 5.2 Cytokeratin will stain most epithelial-derived tissue, including liver, renal tubular epithelium, and hepatocellular and renal cell carcinomas. View
IHC Carcinoma Unknown Primary Site, Female (CUPS IHC Panel - Female ) Staining with the following 10 antibodies to determine origin of carcinoma in female patients: CK 7, CK 20, mammaglobin, ER, TTF1, CEA, CA19-9, S100, synaptophysin, and WT-1. View
IHC Carcinoma Unknown Primary Site, Male (CUPS IHC Panel - Male) Staining with the following eight antibodies to determine origin of carcinoma in male patients: CK 7, CK 20, TTF1, PSA, CEA, CA19-9, S100, and synaptophysin. View
IHC CD10 CD10 is a cell surface enzyme with neutral metalloendopeptidase activity which inactivates a variety of biologically active peptides. CD10 is expressed on the cells of lymphoblastic, Burkitt’s, and follicular germinal center lymphomas, and on cells from patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML). It is also expressed on the surface of normal early lymphoid progenitor cells, immature B cells within adult bone marrow and germinal center B cells within lymphoid tissue. CD10 is also present on breast myoepithelial cells, bile canaliculi, fibroblasts, with especially high expression on the brush border of kidney and gut epithelial cells View
IHC CD117 Recognizes a protein of 145kDa, which is identified as CD117/p145kit. This rabbit polyclonal antibody does not interfere with the binding of SCF to c-kit. It precipitates both the unoccupied as well as the occupied form of c-kit. The binding of the stem cell factor (SCF) to the c-kit-encoded receptor tyrosine kinase (Type III) stimulates a variety of biochemical responses that culminate in cellular proliferation, migration, or survival. C-kit plays an important role in hematopoiesis, melanogenesis, and gametogenesis. View
IHC CD138 CD138 is a transmembrane heparin sulphate proteoglycan which is made up of one core protein and five glycosaminoglycan. CD138 is expected to play a role in cell adhesion. It is expressed on the surface of pre-B cells and plasma cells but is absent from mature B cells. It is a selective marker for B cell lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoplasmocytoid leukemia. It is lost from the apoptotic myeloma cells; hence is a useful marker for viable myeloma cells. View
IHC CD15 CD15 plays a role in mediating phagocytosis, bactericidal activity, and chemotaxis. It is present on >95% of granulocytes including neutrophils and eosinophils and to a lesser degree on monocytes. CD15 is also expressed in Reed-Sternberg cells and some epithelial cells. CD15 antibody is very useful in the identification of Hodgkin’s disease. CD15 is occasionally expressed in large cell lymphomas of both B and T phenotypes which otherwise have a quite distinct histological appearance. View
IHC CD19 CD19 recognizes a 95kD cell surface glycoprotein which is expressed by cells of the B-cell lineage and follicular dendritic cells. CD19 is a co-receptor of CD21and is an important signal transduction molecule which is involved in the regulation of B-lymphocyte development, activation and differentiation. CD19 may provide useful diagnostic information for the study of B-lymphoproliferative disorders. View
IHC CD1a CD1a is expressed on cortical thymocytes, Langerhans cells, and dendritic cells. It is absent on mature Peripheral Blood T cells but intracytoplasmic expression is detected on activated T lymphocytes. CD1 proteins have been demonstrated to restrict T-cell response to non-peptide lipid and glycolipid antigens and play a role in non-classical antigen presentation. View
IHC CD2 CD2 is expressed on T cells, thymocytes, and subset of natural killer cells. Human CD2 functions as the receptor for sheep erythrocytes, human CD58 (LFA-3), and CD15s (Sialyl Lewis X). p56lck, p59fyn, CD3eta and CD3epsilon are tyrosine-phosphorylated after CD2 stimulation. CD2 play a role in T cell activation, T- or NK-cell-mediated cytolysis, apoptosis in activated peripheral T cells, and regulation of T cell anergy. View
IHC CD20 CD20 is a non-Ig differentiation antigen of B cells and the expression of CD20 is restricted to normal and neoplastic B cells, being absent from all other leukocytes and tissues. It acts as calcium channel involved in B cell activation and cell cycle progression. View
IHC CD21 CD21 is expressed strongly on mature B-cells, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and weakly on immature thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. In B-cell ontogeny, CD21 appears after the pre-B-stage, is maintained during peripheral B-cell development and is lost upon terminal differentiation into plasma cells. Immunohistological analysis of FDC in paraffin sections of NHL with this antibody demonstrates a nodular and usually dense and sharply defined FDC meshwork in follicular lymphomas and a loose, ill-defined FDC of varying size in some diffuse lymphoma types. Precursor B-cell lymphoma (lymphoblastic lymphomas), Burkitt lymphomas, plasmacytomas and hairy cell leukemias constantly lack FDC. View
IHC CD22 Anti-CD22 is directed against the type 1 integral membrane glycoprotein CD22. Anti-CD22 exhibits a cell membranous and/or cytoplasmic staining pattern and may be used to aid in the identification of B-cell lymphomas. View
IHC CD23 CD23 is a 45kDa glycoprotein, which is present on a subpopulation of freshly isolated Peripheral Blood and tonsil B cells and strongly expressed on EBV-transformed B lymphoblasts. The CD23 molecule is identical to the low affinity IgE receptor found on B cells. Expression of CD23 has been detected in neoplastic cells from cases of B cell chronic lymphocyctic leukaemia and some cases of centroblastic/centrocytic lymphoma. View
IHC CD3 monoclonal This antibody is directed against the nonglycosylated epsilon chain of the human CD3 molecule. This antibody is intended for use to qualitatively identify T cells. View
IHC CD30 CD30, a single chain glycoprotein, is synthesized as a 90kDa precursor which is processed in the Golgi complex into a membrane-bound phosphorylated mature 105/120kDa glycoprotein. The CD30/Ki-1 antigen is expressed by mononuclear Hodgkin and multinucleated Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin’s disease, by the tumor cells of a majority of anaplastic large cell lymphomas, and by a varying proportion of activated T and B cells. View
IHC CD31 CD31 is a glycoprotein expressed on endothelial cells and in platelets. It is known to be involved in cell signaling and cell adhesion. Antibody to CD31 is of value in the study of benign and malignant vascular tumors. Staining for CD31 has also been used to measure angiogenesis, which reportedly predicts tumor recurrence. View
IHC CD33 CD33 (gp67, or siglec-3) is a member of the sialic acid–binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (siglec) family. In maturing granulocytic cells, there is progressive down-regulation of CD33 from the blast stage to mature neutrophils. However, in monocytes and macrophages/histiocytes, strong expression of CD33 is maintained throughout maturation. This anti-CD33 may be particularly advantageous for cases of acute myeloid leukemia, minimally differentiated (AML-M0) and acute monocytic leukemia (AML-M5), in which other paraffin section markers of myeloid differentiation (such as anti-myeloperoxidase) may be negative. However, anti-CD33 staining must be correlated with other myeloid and lymphoid markers because cases of myeloid antigen–positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia may show bona fide CD33 expression. View
IHC CD34 CD34, a single chain transmembrane glycoprotein, is selectively expressed on human lymphoid and myeloid hematopoietic progenitor cells. Staining for CD34 has been used to measure angiogenesis, which reportedly predicts tumor recurrence. View
IHC CD38 Anti-CD38, when combined with other antibodies in a panel, is useful for the diagnosis of immunodeficiency-related lymphomas. These usually include plasmablastic lymphoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and large B-cell lymphoma arising in HHV8-associated multicentric Castleman disease. Such immunodeficiency-related lymphomas are either pan-B-cell-marker negative or only weakly positive. Detection of plasma cells by anti-CD38 staining on a bone marrow trephine biopsy is necessary to make a definitive diagnosis given that malignant plasma cell counts are difficult to obtain. Anti-CD38 is important in the differential diagnosis of anti-CD20-positive, anti-TdT/anti-cyclin D1-negative diffuse large-to-medium-sized B-cell neoplasms, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and Burkitt lymphoma. View
IHC CD4 CD4, a single chain transmembrane glycoprotein, is found on a T cell subset (helper/inducer) representing 45% of Peripheral Blood lymphocytes. It is also present on 80% of thymocytes and at a lower level on monocytes. It is involved in recognition of antigen presented along with MHC class II by APCs. It serves as receptor for HIV. View
IHC CD43 CD43 is a cell surface glycoprotein which is expressed on all thymocytes and T-cells. CD43 is involved in activation of T cells, B cells, NK cells, and monocytes. View
IHC CD45 LCA CD45 belongs to the family of at least four isoforms of membrane glycoproteins (220, 205, 190, 180kDa) expressed on hematopoietic cell lines but absent on non-hematopoietic cell lines, normal and malignant non-hematopoietic tissues. The intracellular portion of these molecules have protein phosphatase activity and are involved in regulation of transmembrane signals. View
IHC CD45RO Anti-CD45RO reacts predominantly with the p180 component of the Leukocyte Common Antigen (LCA) antigen family and weakly with the 190 kD and 205 kD isoforms. This reagent reacts with most T lymphocytes, macrophages, and Langerhan's cells of normal tissue. View
IHC CD5 CD5, a transmembrane protein, is found on 95% of thymocytes and 72% of Peripheral Blood lymphocytes. In lymph nodes, the main reactivity is observed in T cell areas. CD5 is expressed by many T cell leukemia, lymphomas, and activated T cells. Occasionally, CD5 antigen is also expressed on a subset of B cells. Mantle cell lymphomas (same as diffuse centrocytic lymphomas) are CD5+ while the follicle center cell lymphoma are CD5-. View
IHC CD56 Three isoforms of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) are produced by differential splicing of the RNA transcript from a single gene. The 135kDa isoform is the basic molecule which is glycosylated or sialylated to produce the mature species. NCAM (CD56) is reported to express on most neuroectodermal derived cell lines, tissues, and neoplasms such as retinoblastoma, medullblastoma, astrocytoma, and neuroblastoma. It is also expressed on some mesodermally derived tumors such as rhabdomyosarcoma and also on natural killer cells. View
IHC CD57 Anti-CD57 antibody marks a subset of lymphocytes known as natural killer (NK) cells. Follicular center cell lymphomas often contain many NK cells within the neoplastic follicles. NK-1 also stains neuroendocrine cells and their derived tumors, including carcinoid tumor, and medulloblastoma. NK-1 reportedly also reacts with a variety of cell types in nonlymphoid tissues. View
IHC CD61 CD61 is a glycoprotein found on megakaryocytes, platelets and their precursors. CD61 antigen plays a role in platelet aggregation and also as a receptor for fibrinogen, fibronectin, von Willebrand factor and vitronectrin. View
IHC CD68 Anti-CD68 reacts with a 110 kD intracellular glycoprotein associated with the cell membrane of macrophages and some myeloid elements. View
IHC CD7 Anti-CD7 is directed against the 40kD transmembrane glycoprotein, CD7, which is present in thymocytes and mature T cells. Anti-CD7 may be used to aid in the identification of T cell lymphomas. View
IHC CD79a CD79a is found in the majority of acute leukemias of precursor B cell type, in B cell lines, B cell lymphomas, and in some myelomas. It is not present in myeloid or T cell lines. View
IHC CD8 CD8 molecule consists of two chains, termed alpha and Beta chain, which are expressed as a disulphide-linked alpha/Beta heterdimer or as an alpha/alpha homodimer on T cell subset, thymocytes and NK cells. The majority of CD8+ T cells express CD8 as alpha/Beta heterdimer. CD8 functions as a coreceptor in concert with TCR for binding the MHC class I/peptide complex. The HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein binds CD8 alpha chain (but not Beta chain). View
IHC CD99 CD99 is reported to be expressed on most human tissues including cortical thymocytes, pancreatic islets cells, Leydig and Sertoli cells, virtually all hematopoietic cell types (except granulocytes), peripheral blood lymphocytes, granulose cells of the ovary, endothelial cells and basal/parabasal squamous epithelial cells. CD99 expression has been reported in a wide range of tumors, including Ewings sarcoma and T cell lymphoma. Although its function is not fully understood, CD99 has been implicated in various cellular processes including homotypic aggregation of T cells, upregulation of T cell receptor and MHS molecules, apoptosis of immature thymocytes and leukocyte diapedesis. View
IHC CDX2 The caudal-related homeodomain protein2 (CDX2) is a transcription factor shown to play a role in the development of small and large intestine in mammals and in the differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. It has been shown that CDX2 protein detection by IHC coorelates with RNA transcript levels. In studies using 745 cancers from many anatomic sites, colonic adenocarcinomas demonstrated strong staining in 90% of the cases, while adenocarcinomas of the stomach, esophagus and ovary showed extensive staining in only 30% of the cases. Stains of CDX2 and Villin are useful markers in differntial diagnosis of bladder adenocarcinoma and secondary colorectal adenocarcinoma2. View
IHC CEA, monoclonal Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), is synthesized during development in the fetal gut, and is re-expressed in increased amounts in intestinal carcinomas and several other tumors. Antibody to CEA is reportedly useful in identifying the origin of various metastatic adenocarcinomas and in distinguishing pulmonary adenocarcinomas (60-70% are CEA+) from pleural mesotheliomas (rarely or weakly CEA+). View
IHC CEA, polyclonal Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), is synthesized during development in the fetal gut, and is re-expressed in increased amounts in intestinal carcinomas and several other tumors. Antibody to CEA is reportedly useful in identifying the origin of various metastatic adenocarcinomas and in distinguishing pulmonary adenocarcinomas (60-70% are CEA+) from pleural mesotheliomas (rarely or weakly CEA+). View
IHC Chromogranin A Chromogranin A (a protein of 439 amino acid which is encoded on chromosome 14) is present in neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, including the neuroendocrine cells of the large and small intestine, adrenal medulla and pancreatic islets. It is an excellent marker for carcinoid tumors, phenochromocytomas, paragangliomas, and other neuroendocrine tumors. Coexpression of chromogranin A and neuron specific enolase (NSE) is common in neuroendocrine neoplasms. View
IHC CMV ISH In situ hybridization for detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) RNA.  View
IHC c-MYC c-MYC gene amplification has been found in several types of human tumors. Studies have shown that c-MYC is essential for vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in neoplastic disease. c-MYC oncogene activity may also be necessary for the translocation(s) seen in human breast tumors identified to have a poor-prognosis signature and metastasis to distant sites. Over-expression of the c-MYC oncogene has been implicated in the development and progression of human prostate carcinoma. View
IHC Collagen Type IV Collagen Type IV is the major component of the basal lamina, so antibodies to this molecule confirm its presence and reveal the morphological appearance of the structure. Normal tissue stains with this antibody in a fashion consistent with the sites of mesenchymal elements and epithelial basal laminae. Anti-Collagen IV can also be useful in the classification of soft tissue tumors; schwannomas, leiomyomas, and their well-differentiated, malignant counterparts usually immunoreact with this antibody. The vascular nature of neoplasms, hemangiopericytoma, angiosarcoma, and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma can be revealed by this antibody with greater reliability than non-specific stains (e.g. silver reticulum). View
IHC Congo Red/Amyloid Special stain. The Congo red stain demonstrates all types of amyloid in tissue sections. Amyloid is predominantly a fibrillar protein that deposits in tissue under certain pathologic conditions. At least 25 different chemical types of amyloid have been described, but the majority of cases are derived from immunoglobulin light chains (AL, or primary amyloidosis), serum amyloid A protein (AA, or secondary amyloidosis), and beta2-microglobulins (dialysis-associated amyloidosis). Hereditary amyloidoses are associated with multiple different abnormal proteins, including transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1, gelsolin, lysozyme, fibrinogen, cystatin C and others. Following Congo red staining, bright apple-green birefringence exhibited under polarized light is considered specific for amyloid. View
IHC Cytokeratin 17 The type I keratin 17 (K17) shows a peculiar localization in human epithelial appendages including hair follicles, which undergo a growth cycle throughout adult life. Additionally K17 is induced, along with K6 and K16, early after acute injury to human skin. Predominant expression of K17 and the frequent expression of K8 and K19, with little K6/K16 and K1/K10 expression are the characteristic features of basal cell carcinomas (BCC), suggesting that BCC is differentiated towards undifferentiated follicular epithelia, most probably hair bulge cells. View
IHC Cytokeratin 19 Keratin 19 is a member of type I acidic subfamily of intermediate filaments. It is expressed in various different human tissues except in liver. Keratin 19 is not expressed in hepatocytes, therefore, antibody to keratin 19 is useful in the identification of liver metastasis. View
IHC Cytokeratin 20 Keratin 20 / cytokeratin20 (CK20) is a Type-I keratin which is primarily expressed in gastric and intestinal epithelium, urothelium, and Merkel-cells. CK20 is expressed in adenocarcinomas of the colon, stomach, pancreas and the bile system. CK20 is also present in mucinous ovarian tumors, transitional-cell and Merkel-cell carcinomas. Notably, the squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of the breast, lung, and endometrium, non-mucinous tumors of the ovary, and small cell carcinomas lack in CK20. View
IHC Cytokeratin 5/6 Cytokeratin 5 is expressed in various epithelia and mesothelial cells, while cytokeratin 6 is expressed by proliferating squamous epithelium. This antibody exhibits a cytoplasmic staining pattern and may be used to aid in the identification of squamous cell carcinoma and in distinguishing malignant mesothelioma from lung adenocarcinomas. The detection of cytokeratin 5 in myoepithelial cells with this antibody may also be used to aid in the determination of breast and prostate malignancies. View
IHC Cytokeratin 7 Cytokeratin 7 is a basic cytokeratin which is found in most glandular and transitional epithelia but not in the stratified squamous epithelia. Keratin 7 is expressed in the epithelial cells of ovary, lung, and breast but not of colon, prostate, or gastrointestinal tract. Antibody to cytokeratin is useful in distinguishing ovarian carcinomas (keratin 7+) from colon carcinomas (keratin 7-). View
IHC Cytokeratin 8/18 Anti-cytokeratin 8 & 18 is a cocktail of two mouse monoclonal antibodies. Cytokeratins 8 & 18 can be found in most simple epithelium, e.g. thyroid, female breast, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract. Adenocarcinomas and most non-keratinizing squamous carcinomas will stain, but keratinizing squamous carcinomas will not. This cocktail is used when attempting to demonstrate the presence of Paget cells; there is very little keratin 18 in the normal epidermis so this will only stain Paget cells. This approach facilitates the interpretation using immunostains and is more sensitive than mucin histochemistry. View
IHC Cytokeratin 903 (CK34BE12 HMW) In normal cells, Ab-3 labels squamous, ductal and other complex epithelia. It reacts with benign small-acinir lesions of the prostate and does not react with hepatocytes, pancreatic acinar cells, proximal renal tubes or endometrial glands. In tumor cells, this antibody is reactive with both squamous and ductal neoplasms and variably with those derived from simple epithelium. View
IHC Cytokeratin AE1 (LMW) Twenty human keratins are resolved with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis into acidic (pI <5.7) and basic (pI >6.0) subfamilies. The acidic keratins have molecular weights of 56.5, 55, 51, 50, 50’, 48, 46, 45, and 40kDa. The basic keratins have molecular weights of 65-67, 64, 59, 58, 56 and 52kDa. Members of acidic and basic subfamilies are found together in pairs. The composition of keratin pairs varies with cell type, differentiation status and environment. Many studies have shown the usefulness of keratins as markers in cancer research and tumor diagnosis. View
IHC D2-40 Cyclin D2 is a G1 cyclin required for G1-phase progression and is a strong candidate for a proto-oncogene. cyclin D2 can phosphorylate pRB when associated with cdk4 and/or cdk6. View
IHC Desmin Desmin is an intermediate filament protein of both smooth and striated muscles. Antibody to desmin reacts with striated (skeletal and cardiac) as well as smooth muscle cells. In skeletal and cardiac muscles, the staining is confined to the Z-bands giving a characteristic striated appearance. Anti-desmin antibody is useful in identification of tumors of myogenic origin. View
IHC DOG-1 DOG1 is used as an aid in the identification and diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) within the context of an antibody panel, the patient’s clinical history, and other diagnostic tests evaluated by a qualified pathologist. View
IHC EBER ISH In situ hybridization for detection of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER). View
IHC E-Cadherin E-cadherin is a calcium dependent cell adhesion molecule expressed predominately in epithelial tissues. It plays an important role in the growth and development of cells via the mechanisms of control of tissue architecture and the maintenance of tissue integrity. Numerous studies have demonstrated that reduction and/or loss of E-cadherin expression in carcinomas correlates positively with the potential of these tumors for invasion and metastasis. View
IHC EMA EGA is a mucin-like glycoprotein. Antibody to EMA has been shown useful as a pan-epithelial marker for detecting early metastatic loci of carcinoma in the Bone Marrow or liver. View
IHC ER ER exists in two types: alpha and beta. They are similar in structure. The ligand binding domain and the DNA binding domain are highly conserved in these proteins while the N-terminal transactivating domain is diverged considerably. Five isoforms of the hER beta gene, designated hER beta 1-5 have been identified. ER-Beta binds to estrogen and activates genes through direct interaction with estrogen specific gene elements (ERE’s). ER-Beta RNA has been detected in human thymus, spleen, ovary and testis and in rat ovary and prostrate. This tissue distribution overlaps but is not identical to that of ER - alpha RNA. View
IHC Factor VIII-RA Antibody to factor VIII-related antigen reacts with endothelial cells and neoplastic blood cells. This antibody has helped to establish the endothelial nature of some lesions of disputed histogenesis, e.g. Kaposi's sarcoma and cardiac myxoma. Not all endothelial cells synthesize or store this molecule; therefore, not all tumors of endothelial differentiation (benign or malignant) react with this antigen. Factor VIII-RA was previously called von Willebrand factor. View
IHC Factor XIIIa Factor XIII in both reduced and non-reduced forms. It does not react with human Factor XIII B-chain or human Factor XII. Factor XIII is a Beta-globulin found in plasma and is composed of two subunits. Factor XIII-A is the catalytic subunit and is a dimer of M.W. 160kDa. Factor XIII is present in plasma as an alpha2Beta2 heterodimer (M.W. 320kDa); whereas in platelets, only the alpha2 unit exists. Factor XIIIa is a dermal dendrocyte marker and shows variable reaction with these types of tumors. It can be used for histiocytic phenotyping and has been reported to mark capillary hemangiomas and tumors of the central nervous system. Factor XIII has also been used with CD34 to differentiate between dermatofibroma and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. View
IHC Galectin-3 Galectin-3 is a 31 kD beta-galactosidase binding lectin. It has been associated with binding to the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin. Anti-galectin-3 has been demonstrated to be valuable in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms in both histologic sections and fine needle aspiration biopsy material. Anti-galectin-3 antibody has also been useful in identifying anaplastic large cell lymphoma. View
IHC GATA-3 GATA-3 orchestrates gene expression profiles during embryogenesis of a variety of human tissues, including hematopoietic cells, skin, kidney, mammary gland, and the central nervous system. GATA-3 appears to control a set of genes involved in the differentiation and proliferation of breast cancer. The expression of GATA-3 has a strong association with the expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER) in breast cancer, and there is mounting evidence that GATA-3 can be used as a clinical marker to determine response to hormonal therapy and to refine the prognosis of breast cancer patients. GATA-3 has also been shown to be a novel marker for bladder cancer. View
IHC GCDFP-15 Gross cystic disease of the breast is benign premenopausal disorder in which cysts are a predominant pathological lesion. These cysts appear to be formed from excessive apocrine cystic secretions. This fluid is composed of several glycoproteins including a unique 15kDa monomer protein, Gross Cystic Disease Fluid Protein-15 (GCDFP15). Cytosolic analysis of normal tissue specimens from all major organs has demonstrated GCDFP15 in apocrine epithelia, lacrimal, ceruminous and Moll’s glands and in numerous serous cells of the submandibular, tracheal, bronchial, sublingual and minor salivary glands. GCDFP15 and prostate specific antigen are co-expressed in androgen receptor-positive breast tumors. View
IHC GFAP This antibody reacts with human GFAP and has been solid phase absorbed with human and cow serum. Anti-GFAP stains astrocytes and some groups of ependymal cells and their corresponding tumors. In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells, enteric glial cells and satellite cells are stained. Weak staining of axons has been observed which is caused by cross-reaction with neurofilament. It is useful for distinguishing neoplasms of astrocytic origin from other neoplasms in the central nervous system. Negative staining has been observed with lymphatic tissue, muscle, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, pancreas and bladder. View
IHC GIST IHC Panel Staining with the following four antibodies to aid in the distinction of gastrointestinal stromal tumors from smooth muscle neoplasms: CD117, DOG-1, CD34, and desmin. View
IHC Glycophorin A Glycophorin A is a sialoglycoprotein present on human red blood cells and their precursors. Anti-Glycophorin A has been used to characterize erythroid cell development and in the diagnosis of erythroid leukemias. View
IHC Glypican 3 Anti-Glypican 3 (GC33) Mouse Monoclonal Primary Antibody is directed against the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, glypican 3. This antibody may be used to aid in the differentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma from normal liver or benign lesions. View
IHC GMS Special stain. GMS (Grocott Methenamine-Silver Nitrate) Fungus Stain is used to demonstrate fungal organisms in tissue sections. View
IHC Granzyme B Granzymes are neutral serine proteases which are stored in specialized lytic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and in natural killer (NK) cells. These CTL and NK cells are heavily involved in the elimination of neoplastic and virally infected cells. Secretory granules containing perforin and granzymes are instrumental in undertaking cytolytic activity. Granzyme B is understood to enter a target cell through a perforin pore-formed channel to induce DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. Granzyme B has also been described in neoplastic CTL and NK cells. View
IHC HBME-1 Anti-HBME-1 has been demonstrated to label mesothelial cells, both benign and malignant (malignant mesothelioma) and thus has been used in distinguishing mesothelioma from adenocarcinomas of various origins. More recently this antibody has been used to distinguish thyroid carcinomas (both follicular and papillary) from benign thyroid lesions. View
IHC Helicobacter Pylori Anti-H. pylori antibody reacts with a spiral bacillus bacteria located on the surface of the pyloric and stomach mucosa. Studies have shown that H. pylori plays an important role in the etiology of chronic gastritis and the development of peptic ulcer disease. View
IHC Hemoglobin A Immunohistochemical localization of hemoglobin is excellent as an erythroid marker for the detection of immature, dysplastic, and megaloblastic erythroid cells in myeloproliferative disorders, such as erythroleukemia. In contrast, myeloid cells, lymphoid cells, plasma cells, histiocytes, and megakaryocytes stain negative with anti-hemoglobin A. Anti-hemoglobin A, combined with antibodies against CD34, CD117, CD68, and MPO can be helpful in distinguishing between reactive extramedullary hematopoiesis and that seen in neoplastic myeloid disorders in spleen. Anti-hemoglobin A is limited to expression by erythroid precursors in bone marrow and is therefore of assistance in calculating percentages of erythroid precursors. View
IHC Hep Par 1 This antibody can be used in differential diagnostic separation of hepatoblastoma versus other small round cell tumors. View
IHC Hepatoma/Cholangiocarcinoma vs. Metastatic Carcinoma IHC Panel Staining with the following seven antibodies to differentiate hepatic neoplasms from metastases: Hep Par 1, CDX2, CK 7, CK 20, CAM 5.2, TTF-1, and CEA (monoclonal).  View
IHC HER-2 This antibody is intended for in vitro diagnostic use. Ventana Medical Systems, Inc's (Ventana) PATHWAY anti-HER-2/neu (4B5)Rabbit Monoclonal Primary Antibody (PATHWAY HER-2 (4B5)) is a rabbit monoclonal antibody intended for laboratory use for the semi-quantitative detection of HER-2 antigen in sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded normal and neoplastic tissue on a Ventana automated immunohistochemistry slide staining device. It is indicated as an aid in the assessment of breast cancer patients for whom Herceptin treatment is considered. FDA Approved. View
IHC HHV-8 HHV 8 is the likely etiological agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). HHV 8 encodes a latent nuclear antigen (LNA), which is the product of the viral gene of 73. LNA is capable of forming a complex with retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product, which may be related to its oncogenic activity. View
IHC High-Grade/Large B-Cell Lymphoma IHC Panel Staining with the following six antibodies to differentiate double-hit or triple-hit lymphomas from Burkitt lymphoma or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and to assess prognosis: BCL-2, BCL-6, CD10, c-MYC, Ki-67, MUM1. View
IHC HMB-45 Metastatic amelanotic melanoma can often be confused with a variety of poorly differentiated carcinomas, large cell lymphomas, and sarcomas using H & E stains alone. It is also difficult to differentiate melanoma from spindle cell carcinomas and various types of mesenchymal neoplasms. Anti-HMB-45 stains fetal and neonatal melanocytes, junctional and blue nevus cells, and malignant melanoma. Angiomyolipoma (PEComa) is also labeled by this product. View
IHC Hodgkin vs. NHL IHC Panel Staining with the following antibodies to help distinguish between Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: BOB-1, BCL-6, CD3, CD10, CD15, CD20, CD30, CD45 LCA, CD79a, MUM1, OCT-2, PAX-5, and EBER ISH. View
IHC Inhibin Inhibin is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone from TGF-beta family made up of alpha and beta subunits. It inhibits the production of follicle-stimulating hormone from pituitary while activin stimulates the production of FSH. It is suggested that inhibin may act as a gonadal tumor suppressor. View
IHC Iron Special stain. Prussian Blue Stain is used for the detection of ferric (FE3+) iron in tissues. Ferric iron is normally found in small amounts in the bone marrow and the spleen. Abnormally large deposits may be seen in hemochromatosis and hemosiderosis. View
IHC Kappa Ig Light Chain Antibody to the kappa light chain of immunoglobulin is reportedly useful in the identification of leukemias, plasmacytomas, and certain non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Demonstration of clonality in lymphoid infiltrates indicates that the infiltrate is clonal and therefore malignant. View
IHC Kappa ISH In situ hybridization for detection of kappa light chain mRNA. Testing should be ordered in conjunction with lambda ISH. Positive and negative staining for kappa and lambda are reported and abnormal results are given as percentage ratio. View
IHC Ki-67 Ki-67 is a nuclear protein, which is expressed in the proliferating cells. Ki-67 is preferentially expressed during late G1-, S-, M-, and G2-phases of the cell cycle, while cells in the G0 (quiescent) phase are negative for this protein. View
IHC Lambda Ig Light Chain Antibody to the lambda light chain of immunoglobulin is reportedly useful in the identification of leukemias, plasmacytomas, and certain non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Demonstration of clonality in lymphoid infiltrates indicates that the infiltrate is clonal and therefore malignant. View
IHC Lambda ISH In situ hybridization for detection of lambda light chain mRNA. Testing should be ordered in conjunction with kappa ISH. Positive and negative staining for kappa and lambda are reported and abnormal results are given as percentage ratio. View
IHC lgD Anti-lgD antibody reacts with surface immunoglobulin lgD delta chains. This antibody is useful when identifying leukemias, plasmacytomas, and B-cell lineage derived lymphomas (in particular marginal zone lymphomas (in particular marginal zone lymphoma). Cytoplasmic staining is easily identified on paraffin tissue. Surface immunoglobulin is difficult to demonstrate on paraffin sections but can be demonstrated on frozen sections. View
IHC lgG Anti-lgG antibody reacts with surface immunoglobulin lgG gamma chains. This antibody is useful when identifying leukemias, plasmacytomas, and B-cell lineage derived non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Restricted expression of heavy or light chains in these diseases can be further confirmed with molecular clonal gene rearrangement studies. View
IHC lgM Anti-lgM antibody reacts with surface immunoglobulin lgM mu chains. IgM is one of the predominant surface immunoglobulins on B-lymphocytes. This antibody is useful when identifying lymphomas, plasmacytomas, and B-cell lineage derived non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Restricted expression of heavy or light chains in these diseases can be further confirmed with molecular clonal gene rearrangement studies. View
IHC Lung Cancer IHC Panel Staining with the following five antibodies to differentiate primary adenocarcinoma from squamous carcinoma of the lung: chromogranin A, synaptophysin, CK 7, p63, and TTF-1.  View
IHC Lung vs. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma IHC Panel Staining with the following four antibodies to differentiate lung from metastatic breast carcinoma: TTF1, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15 (BRST-2), and ER. View
IHC Lymphoma Phenotype IHC Panel Staining with the following antibodies to help classify the lymphoma by immunophenotyping: BCL-1, BCL-2, BCL-6, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD8, CD10, CD15, CD20, CD30, CD79a, CD138, Ki-67, MUM1, PAX-5, TdT, and EBER ISH. View
IHC Lymphoma vs. Carcinoma IHC Panel Staining with the following antibodies to distinguish poorly-differentiated carcinoma from lymphoma: CD30, CD45, CD68, CD117, MPO, Pan-Cytokeratin Plus, S100, and synaptophysin. View
IHC Lymphoma vs. Reactive Hyperplasia IHC Panel Staining with the following antibodies to aid in the distinction of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia from lymphoma: BCL-1, BCL-2, BCL-6, CD3, CD5, CD10, CD20, CD23, CD43, and Ki-67. View
IHC Lysozyme Anti-lysozyme stains myeloid cells, histiocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, and monocytes in human tonsil, colon and skin. It is an important marker that may demonstrate the myeloid or monocytic nature of acute leukemia. The restrictive nature of anti-lysozyme antibody staining suggests that lysozyme may be synthesized predominantly in reactive histiocytes rather than in resting, unstimulated phagocytes. Anti-lysozyme may aid in the identification of histiocytic neoplasias, large lymphocytes and classifying lymphoproliferative disorders. View
IHC Mammaglobin Mammaglobin encodes a 10 kDa glycoprotein and is distantly related to a family of epithelial secretory proteins that includes rat estramustine-binding protein/prostatein and human Clara cell 10 kDa protein (CC10)/uteroglobin. Mammaglobin, a mammary-specific member of the uteroglobin family, is known to be overexpressed in human breast cancer. Studies suggest that mammaglobin is one of the first relatively mammary-specific and mammary-sensitive markers (85%). Mammaglobin may be valuable used in a panel with GCDFP-15 and ER in evaluating tumors of unknown primary sites. View
IHC MART-1/Melan A Melan-A is a differentiation antigen that is expressed in 100% of melanocytes, most melanomas and 50-60% of melanoma cell lines. Melan A recognizes a subcellular fraction found in melanosomes. Melan-A is a useful addition to melanoma panels since it is specific for melanocytic lesions. Both HMB-45 and Melan-A are coexpressed in the majority of melanomas, as well as uniquely expressed in certain cases. Studies have shown that Melan-A is more sensitive than HMB-45 when labeling metastatic melanomas. Melan-A antibody labels the tumor cells of a subset of adrenocortical carcinomas and sex cord tumors of the gonads. View
IHC Melanoma vs. Squamous Cell Carcinoma IHC Panel Staining with the following eight antibodies to identify melanoma and differentiate it from squamous cell carcinoma: CD68, Factor XIIIa, CEA (polyclonal), S-100, HMB-45, MART-1/Melan-A, Pan-Cytokeratin Plus, and Tyrosinase. View
IHC Mismatch Repair Proteins IHC Panel (MMR/Colon Cancer) Staining with the following four antibodies to identify defects in mismatch repair proteins: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. View
IHC MLH1 MLH1 is a mismatch repair gene that is deficient in a high proportion of patients with microsatellite instability (MSI-H). This finding is associated with the autosomal dominant condition Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC). The anti-MLH1 antibody is useful in screening patients and families for this condition. Colon cancers that are microsatellite unstable have a better prognosis than their microsatellite stable counterparts. View
IHC MOC-31 MOC-31 is used in a panel of antibodies as a negative marker for mesothelioma; and a negative stain for MOC-31 has been shown to exclude lung adenocarcinoma. MOC-31 is useful in differentiating tumors of unknown origin in liver cancers and distinguishing cholangiocarcinoma (+) from hepatocellular carcinomas (-). MOC-31 may be advantageous in the demonstration of epithelial cell differentiation in cases where anti-cytokeratins are not clearly positive or in cases where a false positivity for cytokeratin cannot be excluded, such as in submesothelial cells. View
IHC MPO (antibody) This test is antibody-based immunohistochemistry. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an important enzyme used by granulocytes during phagocytic lysis of foreign particles engulfed. In normal tissues and in a variety of myeloproliferative disorders myeloid cells of both neutrophilic and eosinophilic types, at all stages of maturation, exhibit strong cytoplasmic reactivity for MPO. Erythroid precursors, megakaryocytes, lymphoid cells, mast cells, and plasma cells are nonreactive. MPO is not observed in the neoplastic cells of a wide variety of epithelial tumors and sarcomas. MPO is useful in differentiating between myeloid and lymphoid leukemias. View
IHC MPO (cytochemical stain) This test is cytochemical staining. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is present in granules of myeloid and monocytic cells, but absent from lymphocytes. Therefore MPO is an important marker for discriminating myeloid vs. lymphoid blasts.  Staining is used to distinguish acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other myeloid leukemias from lymphoid disorders.  View
IHC MSA This antibody is specific for alpha- and gamma-actins of smooth muscle and reacts with myocardium and skeletal muscle, arterial wall muscle fibers, smooth muscle of the G.I. tract, myometrium, prostatic stroma and bladder wall. This antibody should be useful as a muscle marker in normal and uncharacterized tissues. View
IHC MSH2 MSH2 is a mismatch repair gene which is deficient in a high proportion of patients with microsatellite instability (MSI-H). This finding is associated with the autosomal dominant condition Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC). The anti-MSH2 antibody is useful in screening patients and families for this condition. Colon cancers that are microsatellite unstable have a better prognosis than their microsatellite stable counterparts. View
IHC MSH6 Anti-MSH6 is used to qualitatively identify human DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein MSH6, expressed in the nucleus of normal proliferating cells. Deficient or low levels of MSH6 are associated with colorectal and other cancers. View
IHC MUC1 Anti-MUC1 is directed against the membrane bound, glycosylated phosphoprotein MUC1. This antibody may be used to aid in the identification of normal and neoplastic MUC1 expressing cells. View
IHC MUC2 The heterogeneous pattern of mucin expression, including the expression of the intestinal mucin MUC2, may provide new insights into the differentiation pathways of gastric carcinoma. MUC2 is specifically expressed in goblet cells of the small intestine & colon. Expression is rare outside of the GI tract except for mucinous carcinoma of the breast and clear cell-type carcinoma of the ovary. View
IHC MUM1 Multiple myeloma oncogene-1 (MUM1) is a 50 kDa protein encoded by the MUM1 gene. IRF4 / MUM1 is expressed in the nuclei and cytoplasm of plasma cells and a small percentage of germinal center (GC) B cells located in the light zone. This antibody labels MUM-1 protein in centrocytes and their progeny, plasma cells, activated T cells and a wide spectrum of hematolymphoid neoplasms derived from these cells. Therefore, this antibody can be used as a powerful tool for the identification and the subclassification of lymphoid malignancies. View
IHC Myogenin Anti-myogenin labels the nuclei of myoblasts in developing muscle tissue, and is expressed in tumor cell nuclei of rhabdomyosarcoma and some lieomyosarcomas.  Positive nuclear staining may occur in Wilms' tumor. View
IHC Myoglobin Immunostaining with anti-myoglobin is useful for the identification of tumors of muscle origin. Since myoglobin is found exclusively in skeletal and cardiac muscle and is not present in any other cells of the human body, it may be used to distinguish rhabdomyosarcoma from other soft tissue tumors. Anti-myoglobin staining is also useful when demonstrating rhabdomyoblastic differentiation in other tumors, e.g. neurogenic sarcomas and malignant mixed mesodermal tumors of the uterus and ovary. View
IHC Napsin A Immunohistochemical studies have revealed high expression levels of napsin A in human lung and kidney but low expression in spleen. Napsin A is expressed in type II pneumocytes and in adenocarcinomas of lung. The high specificity expression of napsin A in adenocarcinomas of lung is useful to distinguish primary lung adenocarcinomas from adenocarcinomas of other organs. View
IHC Neuroendocrine Neoplasm IHC Panel Staining with the following six antibodies to to identify neuroendocrine features in tumors: CD56, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, TTF-1, Pan-Cytokeratin Plus, and CEA (polyclonal).  View
IHC NSE Enolases are homo- or heterodimers of the three subunits: alpha (46kDa), beta (44kDa), and gamma (46kDa). The alpha-subunit is expressed in most tissues and the beta-subunit only in muscle. The gamma-subunit is expressed primarily in neurons, in normal and in neoplastic neuroendocrine cells. Coexpression of NSE and chromogranin A is common in neuroendocrine neoplasms. View
IHC Oct-2 Oct-2 is a transcription factor dependent on the activity of B cell restricted coactivators such as BOB-1/OBF.1. Oct-2 protein expression is not restricted to B cells, although expression levels are much higher in these cells. Reports indicate that germinal center B cells show higher expression for Oct-2 and BOB-1/OBF.1. In a number of these cases, cells do not express immunoglobulin due to the presence of crippling mutations in the Ig genes. The absence of both Oct-2 and BOB.1 expression represents a novel mechanism for immunoglobulin gene deregulation in Reed Sternberg cells. Oct-2 expression is reported to be significantly greater in germinal center derived lymphomas, although other B cell lymphomas also display high levels of expression. View
IHC p16 p16 is used for detection of the p16INK4a protein on FFPE tissue sections prepared from cervical biopsies. Positive staining is characterized as diffuse, continuous staining of cells of the basal and parabasal cell layers of the squamous cervical epithelium, with or without staining of cells of intermediate to superficial cell layers. This pattern is representative of overexpression of the p16INK4a protein within the cervical epithelium. Negative staining is demonstrated by either focal staining or no staining of the cervical epithelium. View
IHC p21 p21 is cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1), also known as CDKN1A. p21 acts as an inhibitor of the cell cycle during G1 phase and is tightly controlled by the tumor suppressor protein p53. Normal cells generally display a rather intense nuclear p21 expression. Loss of p21 expression has been associated with poor prognosis in several carcinomas (gastric carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma). View
IHC p504s P504s is an enzyme in the ß-oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids. Expression of P504s protein is found in prostatic adenocarcinoma but not in benign prostatic tissue. It has also been found to stain premalignant lesions of the prostate: high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. P504s can be used as a positive marker for PIN. It may be useful to confirm the diagnosis of small foci of prostate carcinoma in needle biopsies. P504s stains the majority prostate cancer, however, P504s has been shown to stain many other types of carcinoma such as hepatoma, breast carcinoma, pancreatic islet tumor and desmoplastic small round cell tumor. View
IHC p53 p53 is a tumor suppressor gene expressed in a wide variety of tissue types and is involved in regulating cell growth, replication, and apoptosis. It binds to mdm2, SV40 T antigen and human papilloma virus E6 protein p53 senses DNA damage and possibly facilitating repair. Mutation involving p53 is found in a wide variety of malignant tumors, including breast, ovarian, bladder, colon, lung, and melanoma. View
IHC p63 The p63 gene, a homologue of the tumor-suppressor p53, is highly expressed in the basal or progenitor layers of many epithelial tissues. P63 shows remarkable structural similarity to p53 and to the related p73 gene. Unlike p53, the p63 gene encodes multiple isotypes with remarkably divergent abilities to transactivate p53 reporter genes and induce apoptosis. View
IHC Pan-Cytokeratin Plus (AE1/AE3 + CK 8/18) AE1/AE3 recognizes acidic and basic subfamilies of cytokeratins. The cocktail of these two antibodies can be used to detect most human epithelia. The acidic cytokeratins have molecular weights of 56.5, 55, 51, 50, 50, 48 46, 45, and 40 kDa. The basic cytokeratins have molecular weights of 65-67, 64, 59, 58, 56 and 52 kDa. Clone 5D3 recognizes cytokeratin (CK) 8 and 18 intermediate filament proteins. These are 52.5 kDa and 45 kDa respectively. In normal tissues, 5D3 recognizes all simple and glandular epithelium. In the past, AE1/AE3 has had problems marking certain tissues types and adenocarcinomas. The addition of CK 8/18 remedies some of these problems. For example a study of twenty-eight lipid cell (steroid cell) tumors of the ovary were studied by immunohistochemistry; 46% were positive for Cytokeratin 8/18 antibody, 37% were positive with the Cytokeratin cocktail AE1/AE3. View
IHC Pan-Keratin (AE1/AE3 + PCK26) Anti-Pan Keratin (AE1/AE3/PCK26) primary antibody may be used to aid in the identification of normal and abnormal epithelial cells and to determine the lineage of poorly differentiated malignant tumors. This pan keratin cocktail recognizes most of the acidic and all of the basic cytokeratins, making it a useful stain for nearly all epithelial tissues and their tumors. Anti-Pan Keratin (AE1/AE3/PCK26) specifically binds to antigens located in the cytoplasm of simple and complex epithelial cells. Anti-Pan Keratin (AE1/AE3/PCK26) contains a mouse monoclonal antibody cocktail raised against an epitope found on human epidermal keratins as reported by Woodcock-Mitchell, et al. Unexpected antigen expression or loss of expression may occur, especially in neoplasms. Occasionally stromal elements surrounding heavily stained tissue and or cells will show immunoreactivity. View
IHC Pan-Melanoma The combination of HMB-45, MART-1, and tyrosinase make this antibody combination a first-order pan melanoma screener, and it may prove to be a valuable marker for melanoma metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes. The HMB-45 clone reacts with a neuraminidase-sensitive oligosaccharide side chain of a glycoconjugate present in immature melanosomes. The HMB45-reactive antigen is present in cutaneous melanocytes, prenatal and infantile retinal pigment epithelium and melanoma cells. It is also thought to be oncofetal in nature. This antibody has been shown to label the majority of melanomas. The MART-1/Melan A recognizes a protein of 18kDa, identified as MART-1 (Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T cells 1) or Melan A. Melan A is a useful addition to melanoma panels which is specific to melanocytic lesions. Studies have also shown that MART-1 is more sensitive than HMB-45 when labeling metastatic melanomas. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme involved in the initial stages of melanin biosynthesis. Studies have shown tyrosinase to be a more sensitive marker when compared to HMB45 and MART-1. It has also been shown to label a higher percentage of desmoplastic melanomas than HMB-45. View
IHC PAS Special stain. The periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain is for the demonstration of polysaccharides, neutral mucosubstances, and basement membranes. View
IHC PAX-5 PAX-5 is a B-cell specific activator protein (BSAP). In early stages of B-cell development, PAX-5 influences the expression of several B-cell specific genes, such as CD19 and CD20. PAX-5 is expressed primarily in pro-, pre-, and mature B-cells, but not in plasma cells. There is an excellent correlation between CD20 and Pax-5 expression; however anti-Pax-5 exceeds the specificity and sensitivity of L26 (CD20) because of its earlier expression in B-cell differentiation and its ability to detect all committed B-cells, including classic Hodgkin’s lymphoma. It is very specific to B-cell lineage and does not stain T-cells. In essence, PAX-5 may be a superior pan B-cell marker to CD20. View
IHC PAX-8 PAX-8 antibody is used an aid to determine if the disease can be classified as renal cell carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, or ovarian non-mucinous carcinoma. View
IHC PD-1 Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is expressed on activated T-cells, B-cells, and myeloid cells. Anti-PD-1 is a marker of angioimmunoblastic lymphoma and suggests a unique cell of origin for this neoplasm. Unlike CD10 and BCL6, PD-1 is expressed by few B-cells, so anti-PD-1 may be a more specific and useful diagnostic marker in angioimmunoblastic lymphoma. In addition, PD-1 expression provides evidence that angioimmunoblastic lymphoma is a neoplasm derived from germinal center-associated T-cells. PD-1 expression in angioimmunoblastic lymphoma lends further support to this model of T-cell oncogenesis, in which specific subtypes of T-cells may undergo neoplastic transformation and result in specific distinct histologic, immunophenotypic, and clinical subtypes of T-cell neoplasia. View
IHC PgR The progesterone receptor is an estrogen-regulated protein. It has been proposed that expression of PR determination indicates a responsive estrogen receptor (ER) pathway, and therefore, may predict likely response to endocrine therapy in human breast cancer. A number of studies have shown that PR determination provides supplementary information to ER, both in predicting response to endocrine therapy and estimating survival. PR has proved superior to ER as a prognostic indicator in some studies. View
IHC PIN-4 In normal epithelia, HMW Cytokeratins (CK5 and CK14) stain basal epithelia in the prostate gland. p63 is detected in prostate basal epithelial nuclei in normal prostate, however, it is negative in malignant tumors of the prostate gland. Thus p63 is useful as a differential marker for benign and malignant tumors of prostate gland and can be useful as a negative marker. Expression of P504S protein is found in prostatic adenocarcinoma, but not in benign prostatic tissue. It has also been found to stain premalignant lesions of the prostate: high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. P504S can be used as a positive marker for PIN. It will be useful to confirm the diagnosis of small focus of prostate carcinoma in needle biopsies. The combination of HMW CKs + p63 + P504S may be extremely useful for diagnosing prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, especially in difficult cases and in cases with limited tissues. The HMW CKs and p63 stain normal (negative marker) and benign prostate glands, and the P504S stains cytoplasm in prostate adenocarcinoma and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. View
IHC PLAP Reacts with a membrane-bound isoenzyme (Regan and Nagao type) of Placental Alkaline Phosphatase (PLAP) occurring in the placenta during the 3rd trimester of gestation. This antibody is highly specific to PLAP and shows no cross-reaction with other isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatases. It is useful in the identification of testicular germ cell tumors. Unlike germ cell tumors, PLAP-positive somatic cell tumors uniformly express epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). View
IHC Plasma Cell Neoplasm IHC Panel Staining with the following antibodies to evaluate plasma cell dyscrasia: BCL-1,CD19, CD20, CD38, CD43, CD56, CD79a, CD138, EMA, kappa, lambda, and MUM1. View
IHC PMS2 The gene product of PMS2 forms a heterodimer with MLH1 that interacts with MSH2 bound to mismatched bases in DNA. PMS2 functions as one of the major DNA mismatch repair genes along with MSH2, MLH1 and MSH6. Mutations in these genes are associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), one of the most common hereditary diseases in man. Immunohistochemistry studies have further determined that the microsatellite instability phenotype in endometrial carcinoma is linked to defects in the MLH1/PMS2 gene. View
IHC Prostate vs. Colon Carcinoma IHC Panel Staining with the following seven antibodies to aid in the differentiation of prostate cancer from colon cancer: CDX2, CK 20, CEA (monoclonal), CA19-9, PSAP, CK 7, and PSA. View
IHC PSA PSA is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease (kallikrein family) produced by the prostate epithelium. PSA is used to confirm prostatic acinar cell origin in primary and metastatic carcinomas and to rule out non-prostatic carcinoma mimics. This antibody is to be used for paraffin-embedded tissue only and is not to be used in serum testing. View
IHC PSAP Prostatic acid phosphatase (PSAP) is one of the two antigenic markers of prostatic carcinoma, the other being prostate specific antigen. It belongs to the kallikrein family of serine proteases and is suggested to act as a hydrolase to split phospharyl choline in semen and as a transferase. View
IHC RCC In a normal kidney, gp200 is localized along the brush border of the pars convoluta and pars recta segments of the proximal tubule, as well as focally along the luminal surface of Bowman's capsule adjoining the outgoing proximal tubule. Of other normal tissues examined, the gp200 is also localized along the luminal surfaces of breast lobules and ducts, the luminal surface of the epididymal tubular epithelium, within the cytoplasm of parathyroid parenchymal cells, and focally within the colloid of thyroid follicles. Thirty-one other normal tissues do not express similar or cross-reacting antigens. Reportedly, gp200 is expressed by 93% of primary and 84% of metastatic renal cell carcinomas. View
IHC Reticulin Special stain. The demonstration of reticular fibers in tissue sections can be important in the differential diagnosis of certain types of tumors. A change from the normal reticular fiber pattern, as is seen in hepatocellular carcinoma, is also an important diagnostic finding. View
IHC S-100 S100 recognizes proteins of 21-24kDa, identified as the A and B subunits of S100 protein. S100 belongs to the family of calcium binding proteins such as calmodulin and troponin C. S100A is composed of an alpha and beta chain whereas S100B is composed of two beta chains. Antibody to S100 stains Schwannomas, ependymomas, astrogliomas, and almost all benign and malignant melanomas and their metastases. S100 protein is also expressed in the antigen presenting cells such as the Langerhan’s cells in skin and interdigitating reticulum cells in the paracortex of lymph nodes. The diagnosis of Histocytosis X is confirmed by S100 staining. S100 PAb is excellent for immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. S100 protein is highly soluble and may be eluted from frozen tissue during staining. View
IHC SMA This antibody stains smooth muscle cells in artery vessel walls, gut wall, and myometrium. Myoepithelial cells in breast and salivary gland are also stained. It reacts with tumors arising from smooth muscles and myoepithelial cells. View
IHC SMM Smooth Muscle Myosin is a cytoplasmic structural protein, which is a major component of the contractile apparatus in smooth muscle cells. Expression of smooth muscle myosin is developmently regulated, appearing early in smooth muscle development, and is specific for smooth muscle development. View
IHC Smoothelin Smoothelin is a constituent of the smooth muscle cell cytoskeleton protein exclusively found in differentiated smooth muscle cells (SMC). Cells with SMC-like characteristics, such as myofibroblasts, myoepithelial cells, skeletal and cardiac muscle, do not contain smoothelin. Distinguishing bladder muscularis mucosae (MM) from muscularis propria (MP) muscle bundles is crucial for accurate staging of bladder carcinoma. Strong smoothelin expression is nearly exclusively observed in muscularis propria. Therefore, the staining pattern of MP (strongly positive) and MM (negative or weakly positive) is useful for staging bladder urothelial carcinoma. Anti-smoothelin immunostaining can be helpful in differentiating benign (+) from malignant smooth muscle tumors (-), and other mimics(-). View
IHC Soft Tissue Tumor IHC Panel Staining with the following seven antibodies to classify soft tissue tumors:  Pan-Cytokeratin Plus, SMA, desmin, S-100, CD34, vimentin, and CD68.  View
IHC SOX-11 Nuclear protein expression of SOX-11 is highly associated with both cyclin D1-positive and negative mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). SOX-11 IHC is useful for identifying true cyclin D1-negative MCL and further defining pathologic features of CD5+ DLBCL. Routine use of anti-SOX-11 in cases of suspected CD5+ DLBCL might help identify additional cases of cyclin D1-negative blastoid MCL. SOX-11 can also be detected in some BL, LBL, and T-PLL, although the different morphological and phenotypic features of these malignancies allow easy recognition of the cases of cyclin D1-negative MCL. View
IHC Surfactant Apoprotein A Lung surfactant protein-A (SP-A) is a major phospholipid-associated glycoprotein in surfactant and is a member of the C-type lectin superfamily that inhibits lipid secretion and enhances the uptake of phospholipid by alveolar type II cells. Levels of SP-A in amniotic fluid are reported to reflect the degree of fetal lung maturity and inadequate levels of surfactant at birth, a frequent occurrence in premature infants, results in respiratory failure. In individuals with lung adenocarcinomas, high concentrations of SP-A have been reported in pleural effusions except in poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinomas where a significant decrease of SP-A immunoreactivity has been reported. View
IHC Synaptophysin This antibody recognizes a protein of 38kDa, identified as synaptophysin. It labels normal neuroendocrine cells of human adrenal medulla, carotid body, skin, pituitary gland, thyroid, lung, pancreas, gastrointestinal mucosa, Paneth’s cells in the gastrointestinal tract and of gastric parietal cells. Neurons in the brain, spinal cord, and retina are also labeled. In combination with anti-chromogranin A and anti-NSE, Ab to synaptophysin is very useful in the identification of normal neuroendocrine cells and neuroendocrine neoplasms. View
IHC TAG 72 TAG-72 is a high molecular weight glycoprotein that is present in human adenocarcinomas and in lesser amounts, non-neoplastic tissues. It has also been found to be useful to distinguish between mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma, however, false positive reactions can occur so results must be interpreted with the utmost caution. View
IHC T‐Cell Lymphoma IHC panel Staining with the following antibodies to diagnose T/NK-cell lymphomas: ALK1, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD8, CD10, CD20, CD21, CD30, CD56, TdT, and EBER ISH. View
IHC TdT Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT). TdT is a DNA polymerase located in the cell nucleus which catalyses the polymerization of deoxynucleotides at the 3’ hydroxyl ends of oligo or polydeoxynucleotide initiators and functions without a template. TdT is considered to be a highly specific marker for the diagnosis and classification of acute lymphoblastic lymphoma/leuksemias. The determination of TdT expression is most valuable when it is different to differentiate histologically between lymphoblastic lymphoma and Burkitt’s lymphoma. View
IHC Thyroglobulin This antibody recognizes a glycoprotein of 330kDa, identified as thyroglobulin. Antibody to thyroglobulin has been shown to be useful in positive identification of thyroid carcinomas of the papillary and follicular types. BIOCAREs cocktail of 2H11 and 6E1 antibodies stains thyroglobulin in follicular epithelial cells as well as colloid tissue. Demonstration of thyroglobulin in a metastatic lesion establishes the thyroid origin of the tumor. Adenocarcinomas of non-thyroidal origin are not reactive. View
IHC TIA-1 TIA-1 (T-cell intracytoplasmic antigen) monoclonal antibody reacts a granule-associated protein expressed in lymphocytes with cytolytic potential. It reacts with 60-70% of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, most large granular lymphocytic leukemias, hepatosplenic T-cell lymphomas, intestinal T-cell lymphomas, NK-like T-cell lymphomas, NK cell lymphomas, nasal T/NK-cell lymphomas, subcutaneous T-cell lymphomas, and pulmonary angiocentric lymphomas of T-or NK-phenotype. B-cell lymphomas, Hodgkin’s and lymphoblastic leukemias are negative for TIA-1. View
IHC T‐LGL Leukemia IHC panel Staining with the following antibodies to diagnose T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia in bone marrow biopsies: CD3, CD8, granzyme B, and TIA-1. View
IHC TRAcP Anti-TRAcP antibody labels the cells of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Other cells stained with this antibody are tissue macrophages and osteoclasts, which also express abundant TRAcP activity. View
IHC Trichrome Special stain. Trichrome stains are frequently used to differentiate between collagen and smooth muscle in tumors and to identify increases in collagenous tissue in diseases such as cirrhosis of the liver. View
IHC Tryptase Tryptases constitute a subfamily of trypsin-like proteinases, stored in the mast cell secretory granules and basophils. Upon cellular activation, these enzymes are released into the extracellular environment. Anti-tryptase is a good marker for mast cells, basophils, and their derivatives. View
IHC TTF-1 TTF-1(Thyroid transcription factor-1) is a member of the NKx2 family of homeodomain transcription factors. It is expressed in epithelial cells of the thyroid gland and the lung. Nuclei from liver, stomach, pancreas, small intestine, colon, kidney, breast, skin, testes, pituitary, prostate, and adrenal glands are unreactive. TTF-1 is detected in primary lung adenocarcinomas and small cell carcinomas and is absent in colon and breast carcinomas. Staining with TTF-1 antibody is useful for distinguishing between tumors of lung and non-lung origin. View
IHC Tyrosinase Tyrosinase catalyzes the formation of melanin within the cells and thus becomes a useful marker for the presence of melanocytes and melanosomes. As a marker of melanocytic lineage, tyrosinase is localized to melanocytes which can be found on the dermal/epidermal junction of normal skin, but is not detected in other normal cells. Expression of tyrosinase is also found in melanocytic lesions including benign nevi and the majority of primary and metastatic malignant melanomas, and not in non-melanocytic tumor types. View
IHC Undifferentiated Tumor IHC Panel Staining with the following four antibodies to help classify tumors as carcinoma, melanoma, lymphoma or sarcoma: Pan-Cytokeratin Plus, S-100, CD45, and vimentin. View
IHC Uroplakin Uroplakins (UPs) are a family of transmembrane proteins (UPs Ia, Ib, II and III) that are specific differentiation products of urothelial cells. In non-neoplastic urothelium, UPIII is expressed in the luminal surface plasmalemma of superficial (umbrella) cells. UPIII detects 53 - 66% urothelial carcinomas, whereas many non-urothelial carcinomas were UPIII-negative. Recent studies of UP gene expression in normal urothelium and bladder cancer specimens found that UP expression was absent after malignant transformation. Thus, UP expression might reflect the malignant potential of urothelial cancer cells as well as being cytodifferential markers of urothelial cells. View
IHC Villin Villin is a 95kD glycoprotein of microvilli associated with rootlet formation in gastrointestinalmucosal epithelium. Anti-villin labels the brush border area in the gastrointestinal mucosalepithelium. This antibody has been useful in differentiating gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinomas and ovarian adenocarcinomas from adenocarcinomas from other organs. Also labeled by this antibody are Merkel cells of the skin. View
IHC Vimentin Vimentin is the main intermediate filament protein in mesenchymal cells and is therefore of value in the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated neoplasms. View
IHC Wright-Giemsa Cytochemical stain. The Wright-Giemsa stain is used to stain peripheral blood and bone marrow smears for study of blood cell morphology. View
IHC WT-1 WT1 is a suppressor gene located on chromosome 11p13 . Wilms' Tumor Protein (WT1) has been identified in proliferative mesothelial cells, malignant mesothelioma, ovarian cystadenocarcinoma, gonadoblastoma, nephroblastoma and desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Lung adenocarcinomas rarely stain positive with this antibody. View